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Abstract

From the last decade emerged many non-state players using low-tech and cost effective missiles, drones, and loitering munitions that dynamically changed warfare. Existing high-tech air defense systems are becoming less effective and costly in dealing with these kinds of threats. Similarly, new autonomous Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Swarming Technology (LOCUST) and target saturation concepts are making modern air defenses themselves more vulnerable to attack, as some recent conflicts have shown. At the same time, in some instances states claimed that these kinds of attacks have been successfully neutralized with the combination of conventional air defense and electromagnetic (EM) waves. The use of electromagnetic spectrum for defensive purposes is known as Electronic Warfare (EW). EW helps in protecting the host and in denying opportunity to adversaries through monitoring, controlling and manipulating the electromagnetic spectrum. Since the introduction of wireless communication, EW has become inseparable from the armed forces, and day-by-day its use is increasing through machine automation. In future wars, these invisible EM waves will play a key role in defeating adversaries for those who use EW effectively. In this article, the concepts of EW, major countries' capacities, and the future demand for EW has been reviewed.

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